The curl in spherical polar coordinates, expressed in determinant form is:
Cartesian to Spherical coordinates
The vector field tangents used to derive a formula for the circulation per unit area
... geometry (or Analytic geometry) in three-dimensional space, Points, lines and planes in three-dimensional coordinate system represented by vectors
Vector addition for vectors at any angle | Adding vectors | How to add vectors
Vector addition for perpendicular vectors | Adding vectors | How to add vectors
High level representation of the components of the preprocessing unit.